National Sunday Law
By the year 476 A.D. the Roman Empire had been broken up into exactly ten
"The historian Machiavelli, without the slightest reference to this
prophecy, gives the following list of the nations which occupied the territory
of the Western Empire at the time of the fall of Romulus Augustus (476 A.D.),
the last emperor of Rome: the Lombards, the Franks, the Burgundians, the
Ostrogoths, the Visigoths, the Vandals, the Heruli, the Suevi, the Huns, and the
Saxons: ten in all.
"They have never since the breaking up of old Rome been united into one
single empire; they have never formed one whole even like the United States. No
scheme of proud ambition seeking to reunite the broken fragments has ever
succeeded; when such have arisen, they have been invariably dashed to
"And the division is as apparent now as ever. Plainly and palpably
inscribed on the map of Europe this day, it confronts the skeptic with its
silent but conclusive testimony to the fulfillment of this great prophecy."
"The Divine Program of the World's History," by H. Grattan Guenness,
pgs. 318-321. (As quoted in "Bible Readings For the Home," Review and
Herald Publ. Assoc., London, MCMXLII, pgs 216,217).
THE "BEAST" and the "LITTLE HORN"
1) The "little horn" has the "eyes of man." Daniel 7:8.
... The "beast" has the number of a man." Revelation 13:18.
2) The "little horn" "wears out the saints of the Most
High." Daniel 7:35.
... The "beast" also "makes war with the saints."
3) The "little horn" speaks "great words against the Most
High." Daniel 7:25.
... The "beast" also "Opened his mouth in blasphemy against
God." Revelation 13:6.
4) The "little horn" comes up among the ten horns (10 divisions of
Rome.) Daniel 7:8.
... The "beast" receives it's "power, seat, and great
authority" from Rome
... (after the ten divisions were formed). Revelation 13:2.
The 1260 Year Reign of the Beast
The seven verses mentioning the 1260 year time period are all speaking of the
same power which persecutes God's people. These texts are as follows: Revelation
13:5, Revelation 11:2, Daniel 7:25, Revelation 12:14, Revelation 11:3,
Revelation 12:6 and Daniel 12:7.
The key that unlocks the time prophecies is the principle given in Ezekiel
4:6 and Numbers 14:34. These verses reveal to us that one day in prophecy equals
one literal year. For this reason all time prophecies must be first broken down
into days. Using this Bible "key," time prophecies work out perfectly
and become easy to understand.
A month in Bible reckoning contains 30 days. A year contains 360 days. This
is the formula for understanding all prophetic time.
In Revelation 11:2 and 12:14, the time given is "time,"
"times," and "half a time." This equals 3 1/2 times. From
Daniel 4 we learn that a "time" equals one literal year. In that
chapter you'll find that King Nebuchadnezzar lost his mind as Daniel predicted,
and crawled around in the field for "seven times." He was in that
condition for 7 literal years. So 3 1/2 times equals 3 1/2 years (3 1/2 years
contain 1260 days).
Revelation 11:3 and 12:6 plainly give the time as 1260 days (that the beast
would persecute God's people).
Using the day for a year principle found in Ezekiel 4:6 and Numbers 14:34, we
see that this power would rule for 1260 years before receiving its "deadly
wound." When we take a look at the beast power, we see that this is exactly
what has happened. For God to repeat this time period seven times like this
shows the importance which He places on it.
Here are the verses in sequence:
Revelation 11:2 and 13:5 describe this power as reigning for 42 months. (42
months with 30 days to a month contain 1260 days.)
Daniel 7:25 and 12:7, and Revelation 12:14 describe the beast as reigning 3
1/2 "times," or years. (3 1/2 prophetic years also contain 1260 days.)
Revelation 11:3 and 12:6 describe this persecuting power as reigning 1260
All seven texts describe this power as reigning 1260 prophetic days which is
1260 literal years.
The following extracts are from authoritative works by Catholic dignitaries
concerning the title and position of their leader.
"All the names which are attributed to Christ in Scripture, implying His
supremacy over the church, are also attributed to the Pope." Bellamin,
"On the Authority of Councils," book 2, Chapter 17.
"For thou art the shepherd, thou are the physician, thou art the
director, thou art the husbandman, finally thou art another God on earth."
Labbe and Cossart's "History of the Councils," Vol. XIV,
For the title "Lord God the Pope," see a gloss on the Extravagantes
of Pope John XXII, title 14, chapter 4, Declaramus.
In an Antwerp edition of the Extravagantes, the words, "Dominum
Deum Nostrum Papam" (Our Lord God the Pope") occur in column 153. In a
Paris edition, they occur in column 140.
"Hence the Pope is crowned with a triple crown, as king of heaven, and
earth, and purgatory." Prompta Bibliotheca," Feraris,
Vol. VI, pg. 26, article "Papa."
In a passage which is included in the Roman Catholic Canon Law, Pope Innocent
III declares that the Roman pontiff is "the vicegerent upon earth, not of a
mere man, but of very God;" and in a gloss on the passage it is explained
that this is because he is the vicegerent of Christ, Who is "very God and
very man." See Decretales Domini Gregorii Papae IX (Decretales
of the Lord Pope Gregory IX), liberi, de translatione Episcoporum,
(on the transference of Bishops), title 7, chapter 3; Corpus Juris Canonice (2nd
Leipzig ed., 1881), col. 99; (Paris, 1612), tom. 2, Decretales, col. 205.
Among the twenty-seven propositions known as the "Dictates of
Hildebrand" (under the name of Pope Gregory VII) occur the following:
" 2. That the Roman pontiff alone is justly styled universal.
" 6. That no person . . . may live under the same roof with one
excommunicated by the Pope.
" 9. That all princes should kiss his feet only.
"19. That he can be judged by no one.
"22. That the Roman Church never erred, nor will it, according to the
scripture, ever err.
"27. That he can absolve subjects from their allegiance to unrighteous
In Clark's Commentary on Daniel 7:25, it says:
"They have assumed infallibility, which belongs only to God. They profess
to forgive sin, which belongs only to God."
THE BIBLE FORBIDDEN
In the Council of Toulouse, the church leaders ruled: "We prohibit
laymen possessing copies of the Old and New Testament . . . We forbid them most
severely to have the above books in the popular vernacular." "The
lords of the districts shall carefully seek out the heretics in dwellings,
hovels, and forests, and even their underground retreats shall be entirely wiped
out." Concil Tolosanum, Pope Gregory IX, Anno. Chr. 1229.
The church Council of Tarragona ruled that: "No one may possess the
books of the Old and New Testaments in the Romance language, and if anyone
possesses them he must turn them over to the local bishop within eight days
after the promulgation of this decree, so that they may be burned." D.
Lortsch, Histoire de la Bible en France, 1910, p.14.
After the Bible societies were formed they were classed with Communism in an
amazing decree. On December 8, l866, Pope Pius IX, in his encyclical Quanta
Cura issued the following statement: "Socialism, Communism,
clandestine societies, Bible societies . . . pests of this sort must be
destroyed by all means."
"WAR WITH THE SAINTS"
"Under these bloody maxims, those persecutions were carried on, from the
eleventh and twelfth centuries almost to the present day, (written in 1845),
which stand out on the page of history. After the signal of open martyrdom had
been given in the canons of Orleans, these followed the extirpation of the
Albigenses under the form of a crusade, the establishment of the Inquisition,
the cruel attempts to extinguish the Waldenses, the martyrdoms of the Lollards,
the cruel wars to exterminate the Bohemians, the burning of Huss and Jerome, and
multitudes of other confessors . . . the extinction by fire and sword of the
Reformation in Spain and Italy, by fraud and open persecution in Poland, and the
massacre of Bartholomew, . . . besides the slow and secret murders of the holy
tribunal of the Inquisition." T.R. Birks, M.A. The First Two Visions
of Daniel, (London: 1845) pg. 258, 259.
"The number of the victims of the Inquisition in Spain, is given in 'The
History of the Inquisition in Spain,' by Llorente, (formerly secretary of
the Inquisition), pgs. 206-208. This authority acknowledged that more than
300,000 suffered persecution in Spain alone, of whom 31,912 died in the flames.
Millions more were slain for their faith throughout Europe." Printed in Bible
Readings For the Home, (Washington: Review & Herald Pub. Assoc.,
1942) p. 221.
"The church has persecuted. Only a tyro in church history will deny that
. . . one hundred and fifty years after Constantine, the Donatists were
persecuted and sometimes put to death . . . . Protestants were persecuted in
France and Spain with the full approval of the church authorities . . . . When
she thinks it good to use physical force, she will use it." The
Western Watchmen (Roman Catholic), of St. Louis.
EDICT AGAINST THE WALDENSES
"A considerable portion of the text of the papal bull issued by Innocent
VII in 1487 against the Waldenses (the original of which is in the library of
the University of Cambridge) is given, in an English translation, in John
Dowling's History of Romanism (1871 ed.), book 6, chapter 5; sec.
62." (Taken from Cosmic Conflict (Washington: Review &
Herald Pub. Assoc. 1982) p. 602.
The second Council of Nicea...D. 787, was called to establish image worship
in the church. This council is recorded in Ecclesiastical Annals.
by Baronius, Vol. 9, pp. 391-407. (Antwerp, 1612); and Charles J. Hefele, A
History of the Councils of the Church From the Original Documents, book
18, chapter 1, secs. 332, 333; chapter 2, secs. 345-352 (T. and T. Clark ed.,
1896), Vol. 5, pp. 260-304, and 342-372.
J. Mendham, in The Seventh General Council, the Second of Nicea.
Introduction, Pgs, iii-vi, says - "The worship of images . . . was one of
those corruptions of Christianity which crept into the church stealthily and
almost without notice or observation. This corruption did not, like other
heresies, develop itself at once, for in that case it would have met with
decided censure and rebuke.
"Images were first introduced into churches, not to be worshiped, but
either in place of books to give instruction to those who could not read, or to
excite devotion in the minds of others . . . but it was found that images
brought into churches darkened rather than enlightened the minds of the ignorant
- degraded rather than exalted the devotion of the worshiper."
CHANGE OF GOD'S LAW
"Although the ten commandments, are found in the Roman Catholic Versions
of the Scriptures, yet the faithful are instructed from the catechisms of the
church, and not from the Bible. As it appears in these, (catechisms) the law of
God has been changed and virtually re-enacted by the Papacy.
"The second commandment, which forbids the making of, and bowing down to
images, is omitted in Catholic catechisms, and the tenth, which forbids
coveting, is divided into two." "Bible Readings For the Home,"
(Washington: Review & Herald Pub. Assoc., 1942), p. 221.
On the opposite page is God's law as given by Himself and as changed by man.
*****The Law of God*****
AS GIVEN BY JEHOVAH AS CHANGED BY MAN
Thou shalt have no other gods I am the Lord thy God: thou
before Me. shalt not have strange gods
Thou shalt not make unto thee
any graven image, or any like-
ness of anything that is in
heaven above, or that is in the
water under the earth: thou
shalt not bow down thyself to
them, nor serve them: for I the
Lord thy God am a jealous God,
visiting the iniquity of the fa-
thers upon the children unto the
third and fourth generation of
them that hate Me: and showing
mercy unto thousands of them
that love Me, and keep My com-
Thou shalt not take the name Thou shalt not take the name
of the Lord thy God in vain; for of the Lord thy God in vain.
the Lord will not hold him guilt-
less that taketh His name in vain.
Remember the Sabbath day, to Remember that thou keep holy
keep it holy, Six days shalt thou the Sabbath day.
labor, and do all thy work: but
the seventh day is the Sabbath of
the Lord thy God: in it thou
shalt not do any work, thou, nor
thy son, nor thy daughter, thy
man servant, nor thy maid ser-
vant, nor thy cattle, nor thy
stranger that is within thy gates:
for in six days the Lord made
heaven and earth, the sea, and
all that is them is, and rested
the seventh day: Therefore the
Lord blessed the Sabbath day,
and hallowed it.
Honor thy father and thy Honor thy father and thy mother.
mother: that thy days may be
long upon the land which the
Lord thy God giveth thee.
Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not kill.
Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
Thou shalt not bear false wit- Thou shalt not bear false wit-
ness against thy neighbor. ness against thy neighbor.
Thou shalt not covet thy neigh- Thou shalt not covet thy neigh-
bor's house, thou shalt not covet bor's wife.
thy neighbor's wife, nor his man
servant, nor his maid servant, X
nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any- Thou shalt not covet thy neigh-
thing that is thy neighbor's bor's goods.
(Ex. 20:3-17) (Butler's Catechism, page 28.)
THE FIRST SUNDAY LAW
"The earliest recognition of the observation of Sunday as a legal duty
is a constitution of Constantine in 321 A.D. enacting that all courts of
justice, inhabitants of towns, and workshops were to be at rest on Sunday (venerabili
die Solis), with an exception in favor of those engaged in agricultural
labor." Encyclopedia Britannica, ninth edition, article "Sunday."
The Latin original is in the Codes Justiniani (Codes of Justinian), lib. 3,
title 12, lex. 3.
The law is given in Latin and in English in Philip Schaff's History of
the Christian Church, Vol. 3, 3d period, chapter 7, sec. 75, pg. 380,
And in Albert Henry Newman's A Manual of Church History,
(Philadelphia: The American Baptist Publication Society, 1933),rev.ed., Vol.
And in Leroy E. Froom, The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers
(Washington, D.C.: Review & Herald Publishing Asoc., 1950), Vol. 1, pp.
"FIRST DAY" BIBLE TEXTS
Millions of conscientious Christians attend church every Sunday, the first
day of the week. They do so believing that somewhere, somehow, someone changed
the day of worship. Either that, or they aren't aware that God set aside the
seventh day, not the first day of the week as His holy day.
It is true, a change has been made.
But by whom? We've discovered that God made the Sabbath during the first week
of earth's history. He set it aside as a weekly appointment between man and
Himself - as a blessing, a refreshment, a date between two lovers so to speak
(God and man.)
If God changed His mind about His special appointment day with us, wouldn't
He have recorded so momentous an adjustment in the Bible?
We've already seen that the beast power claims to have made the change, but
what does the Bible say about it?
There're eight texts in the New Testament that mention the first day of the
week. Look at them carefully.
Matthew 28:1 Mark 16:1,2 Mark 16:9 Luke 24:1 John 20: 1 John 20: 19 Acts 20:
7,8 I Corinthians 16:1,2
The first five texts simply state that the women came to the sepulchre early
on the resurrection morning, and that Jesus rose from the dead.
Now look up John 20:19 in your Bible. It tells us that Jesus appeared to the
disciples later on the resurrection day. It says that the reason they were
assembled was "for fear of the Jews. ''
They were scared. No telling when the Jews might grab them and treat them to
the same fate as their Master. They were hiding.
They had seen their beloved Master die on Friday. They "returned, and
prepared spices and ointments; and rested the Sabbath day according to the
commandment." Luke 23:56. And now they're hiding with the doors shut
"for fear of the Jews." John, 20:19.
There's no mention of a change.
The seventh text is Acts 20:7,8. It says "and upon the first day of the
week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them,
ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight. And
there were many lights in the upper chamber, where they were gathered
This was a night meeting - the dark part of the first day of the week. In
Bible reckoning, the dark part of the day comes before the light part. Genesis
1:5 - "and God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And
the evening and the morning were the first day." The dark part comes first.
The Bible reckons a day from sunset to sunset.
The seventh day begins on sunset Friday evening. The first day of the week
begins sunset Saturday evening. Paul is together with his friends on the dark
part of the first day of the week - Saturday night. This is a farewell
get-together. He preached until mid-night, when poor Eutychus falls out the
window. (Acts 20:9).
You can imagine how relieved they were when it was found that God spared his
life. Verse eleven says that they talked till the break of day and then Paul
departed. Verse thirteen shows that Paul spent that Sunday morning traveling to
There's nothing here either concerning a change of the Sabbath.
The New English Bible translates this text like this:
"On the Saturday night, in our assembly for the breaking of bread, Paul,
who was to leave the next day, addressed them, and went on speaking until
midnight." Acts 20: 7.
The last text mentions the first day of the week in I Corinthians 16:1,2.
It says - "Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given
order to the churches of Calatia, even so do ye. Upon the first day of the week
let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there
be no gatherings when I come." Verse three tells that he will bring the
offering to Jerusalem.
As he had done in Galatia, so Paul also requests of those in Corinth to have
a collection all ready when he would come to take it to the poor saints in
Jerusalem. There's nothing in the text about a church service, but each person
is to "lay by him in store." the first of the week was the best time
for the people to set some money aside because later in the week it would be
spent. That's true today as well! Paul requested this so that "there be no
gatherings when I come." I Corinthians 16:2.
At this time the Christians are suffering hardship in Jerusalem and Paul is
making his rounds to the churches taking up a collection for them. (We should be
that thoughtful today.)
There's nothing in this text either about a change of God's Sabbath to
Concerning worship, what was Paul's custom?
Here it is.
"And Paul, as his manner was, went in unto them, and three Sabbath days
reasoned with them out of the scriptures." Acts 17:2.
Jesus, as our example also had the custom of attending church on Saturday,
the seventh day. (Luke 4:.16).
THE CEREMONIAL LAW AND THE TWO COVENANTS
The distinction between the Moral law of God (the ten commandments), and the
ceremonial law is plain.
Look carefully at the difference in the two. The one with animal sacrifices
was nailed to the cross, the other will stand forever.
10 Commandments Ceremonial Law
1) Is called the "royal Is called the law
law" lames 2:8. contained in or-
2) Was spoken by God. Was spoken by
Deuteronomy 4:12,13. Moses. Leviticus 1:1-3.
3) Was written with Was written by
the finger of God. Moses in a book.
Exodus 31:18. II Chronicles 35:12.
4) Was placed in the Was placed in the
ark. Exodus 40:20, side of the ark.
Hebrews 9:4. Deuteronomy 31:24-26.
5) ls to "stand forever Was nailed to the
and ever." Psalms Cross. Colossians 2:14.
6) Was not destroyed by Was abolished by
Christ. Matthew 5:17 Christ. Ephesians
& 18. 2:15.
The two great commandments are "Love the Lord with all thy heart and all
thy soul and all thy mind." The second great commandment is "Love your
neighbor as yourself." God's ten commandments are hanging on these two. The
first four, on the first table, tell us how to love God with all our heart.
(Have no other Gods, not worship images, not take God's name in vain, and
remember His Sabbath day to keep it holy.) The last six, on the second table
deal with loving our neighbor as ourselves. (To honor our parents, not kill, not
commit adultery, not steal, not lie, not covet.)
THE OLD AND NEW COVENANTS
The old covenant was ratified by the blood of animals (Exodus 24:5-8 and
Hebrews 9:19,20) and based upon the promises of the people that they would keep
The new covenant is based on God's promise to write His law in our hearts and
it was ratified with the blood of Christ. (Hebrews 8:10 and Jeremiah 31:33,34.)
Hebrews 8:10 - "For this is the covenant that I will make with the house
of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their minds,
and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be
to me a people."
(TIME NOT LOST)
It takes the earth exactly 365 day, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 47.8 seconds to go
around the sun.
But there's no way to put that into any calendar so our calendar in
constantly being updated. That's why we have a "leap year." In 1582
they discovered that the year was a little longer than 365 days, and the
astronomers added 10 days to bring: the month up to date, but the weekly cycle
was not altered. Thursday the 4th was followed by Friday the 15th. The calendar
was updated without altering the weekly cycle in any way.
Of course, even though we've had leap years down through the centuries, the
days of the week have never been changed and not even a minute of time has been
lost track of!
There have been many ancient calendars. The first modern calendar as we have
today was put into use in 45 B.C. by Julius Caesar. The names of the days as we
have them now were also used then.
Since the Babylonians worshipped the planets, many anciently began to call
the days of the week by the names of the planets. The Hebrews and the Bible
writers never did this. This is why, even though the names of the days as we
have them today, i.e. Sunday, Monday, etc. existed around the time of Christ,
the Bible writers never referred to the days by these names, since they were of
Pagan origin. The old Mithra religion from the time of Babylon and Persia led to
the naming of the days of the week after the planets. Zoroaster popularized the
god, Mithra, in Persia about 630 B.C.
Since Mithra was supposedly a god of great courage, the Roman soldiers became
worshippers of it. In their travels they carried the idea of naming the days of
the week after the planets among the Teutonic tribes of what is today known as
Germany. The Teutons substituted a few of their own gods instead of planets for
the names of days. (This was before the time of Christ.) The names stuck, and
we've had them ever since. Below is a list of the Teutonic gods and the days of
The name of the Teutonic gods were:
- - Sunday
- - Monday
- - Tuesday
- - Wednesday
- - Thursday
- - Friday
- - Saturday
Though the calendar is constantly being updated to compensate for the 365
days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 47.8 seconds in the year, yet, the week of seven days
has never been altered.
Historians writing around and even before the time of Christ, have referred
to "the day of the sun" and "the day of Saturn."
Dr. W.W. Campbell, director of the Lick Observatory in Mount Hamilton,
California assures us:
"The week of seven days has been in use ever since the days of Moses,
and we have no reason for supposing that any irregularities have existed in the
succession of the weeks and their days from that time to the present." D.W.
Cross Your Amazing Calendar (Taunton: 1972) pp. 6,7.
Time can be traced to the very second by the positions of the stars! I wrote
to the Pentagon in Washington D.C., the Department of Astronomy. And I received
a courteous reply. They informed me that from the positions of the stars every
moment of time has been kept track of since before 500 B.C.
Dr. J.B. Dimbleby, premier chronologist to the British Chronological and
Astronomical Association, after years of careful calculations asserts: "If
men refused to observe weeks, and the line of time was forgotten the day of the
week could be recovered by observing when the transits of the planets, or
eclipses of the Sun and Moon, occurred. These great sentinels of the sky keep
seven days with scientific accuracy, thundering out the seven days inscribed on
the inspired page." - All Past Time, p. 10.
It's interesting to note how Dr. G.E. Hale, noted astronomer for whom the
great "Palomar telescope" has been named, expressed the same truth in
five forceful words: "No time has been lost."
1) Vandeman, George Destination Life, (Mountain
View: Pacific Press Pub. Assoc., 1980), p. 74
2) White, E.G. Cosmic Conflict, (Washington:
Review & Herald Pub. Assoc. 1982), P. 388
3) Ibid. P. 389.
4) Violence and the Mass Media, (New York:
Harper & Row, 1968), p. 51
5) Ibid. p. 43
6) Life, January, 1988, p. 46
7) Gulley, Norman Is the Majority Moral?,
(Washington: Review & Herald, Pub. Assoc., 1981), p. 8
9) Ibid. p. 10
11) Ibid. p. 20
1) Smith, Uriah Daniel and Revelation,
(Nashville: Southern Publishing Assoc., 1944), p. 42,43
1) Stringfillow, Bill All in the Name of the Lord,
(Clemont: Concerned Publications, 1981), p. 124.
2) Cited in Liberty, June, 1980, p. 13.
3) White, E.G. Cosmic Conflict, (Washington:
Review & Herald Pub. Assoc., 1982), p. 38-40.
1) White, E.G. Cosmic Conflict, (Washington:
Review & Herald Pub. Assoc., 1982), p. 498.
2) The Catholic Church, The Renaissance, and
Protestantism, p. 182-183.
3) White, E.G. Cosmic Conflict, (Washington:
Review & Herald Pub. Assoc., 1982), p. 72.
4) Catholic Mirror, Sept. 23, 1983.
(Official organ of Cardinal Gibbons).
5) Catholic Press, (Sydney, Australia), Aug.
1) Thomas, H.F., Chancellor of Cardinal Gibbons,
in answer to a letter regarding the change of the Sabbath.
2) Father Enright C.S.S.R. of the Redemptoral College,
Kansas City, (In History of the Sabbath), p. 802.
1) Stringfillow, Bill All in the Name of the Lord,
(Clemont: Concerned Publications, 1981), p. 134-135.
2) Catholic Twin Circle, August 25, 1985,
Art. "Sacking Sunday."
3) Liberty Confidential Newsletter Vol. 5,
4) These Times, April, 1982. Norman Gulley,
"Life After Death - What About the New Evidence?"
1) Olson, R.W. The Crisis Ahead (Angwin:
Pacific Union College Book Store, 1981), p. 5.
1) White, E.G. Cosmic Conflict, (Washington:
Review & Herald Pub. Assoc., 1982), p. 557.
3) Ibid. p. 558-561.
4) Ibid. p. 561-566.